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 Nobel Peace Prize

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عدد المساهمات : 551
تاريخ التسجيل : 09/01/2011
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مُساهمةموضوع: Nobel Peace Prize    الجمعة يناير 21, 2011 8:36 am

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel.
According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize should be awarded to the person who
“ ...shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses ”
Alfred Nobel's will further declared that the prize should be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament.
Nobel died in 1896, not leaving an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category. As he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear. According to the Norwegian Nobel Committee, there is significant evidence his friendship with Bertha von Suttner, a peace activist and later winner of the prize, may have profoundly influenced his decision to include peace as a category. Some Nobel scholars have suggested it was Nobel's way to compensate for developing destructive forces (Nobel's inventions included dynamite and ballistite). Except for ballistite, none of his explosives were used in any war during his lifetime. However, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, did carry out dynamite attacks in the 1880s, and Nobel was instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel company to an armaments company while he owned it.
It is also unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, which was ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobel's death. The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize as it did not have the same militaristic traditions as Sweden. It also notes that at the end of the nineteenth century, the Norwegian parliament had become closely involved in the Inter-Parliamentary Union's efforts to resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration.

Year Winners Country
2000 Kim Dae-jung, (3 December 1925 – 18 August 2009)[
South Korea
2001 Kofi Annan (8 April 1938)
United Nations Ghana
United Nations
2002 Jimmy Carter (October 1, 1924) United States
2003 Shirin Ebadi(21 June 1947) Iran
2004 Wangari Maathai (April 1, 1940) Kenya
2005 The International Atomic Energy Agency
Mohammed ElBaradei (June 17, 1942) United Nations

2006 Grameen Bank
Muhammad Yunus (28 June 1940) Bangladesh
2007 Al Gore (March 31, 1948)
International Committee of the climate change the United States
2008 Martti Ahtisaari (23 June 1937) Finland `
2009 Barack Obama (August 4, 1961) United States
2010 Liu Xiaobo (28 December 1955) China
Jimmy Carter
James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924) served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981 and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office. Before he became President, Carter served two terms as a Georgia State Senator and one as Governor of Georgia, from 1971 to 1975,[2] and was a peanut farmer and naval officer.
As president, Carter created two new cabinet-level departments: the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He established a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, and new technology. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued theCamp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties, the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II), and returned the Panama Canal Zone to Panama.
Throughout his career, Carter strongly emphasized human rights. He took office during a period of international stagflation, which persisted throughout his term. The final year of his presidential tenure was marked by the 1979 takeover of the American embassy in Iran and holding of hostages by Iranian students, an unsuccessful rescue attempt of the hostages, fuel shortages, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
By 1980, Carter's popularity had eroded. He survived a primary challenge against Ted Kennedy for the Democratic Party nomination in the1980 election, but lost the election to Republican candidate Ronald Reagan. On January 20, 1981, minutes after Carter's term in office ended, the 52 U.S. captives held at the U.S. embassy in Iran were released, ending the 444-day Iran hostage crisis.[3]
After leaving office, Carter and his wife Rosalynn founded the Carter Center in 1982,[4] a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization that works to advance human rights. He has traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations, observe elections, and advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations. Carter is a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity project,[5] and also remains particularly vocal on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
. Mohammed ElBaradei

Dr. Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد مصطفى البرادعي‎, transliteration: Muḥammad Muṣṭafa al-Barādaʿī, Egyptian Arabic: : born June 17, 1942) was the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations from December 1997 to November 2009. An Egyptian, ElBaradei prefers the Latin writing of his name to be spelled ElBaradei rather than hyphenated (El-Baradei). ElBaradei and the IAEA were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005
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Nobel Peace Prize
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